Leishmaniasis

    Article Contributors: 
    Sean Klepper M.D.
    Artur Zembowicz M.D....

    Clinical Features:

     

    • Group of protozoal infestations prevalent in Latin America, Africa, Asia and the Mediterranean
    • Various clinical forms exist, including cutaneous, mucocutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis, with different species responsible for the various presentations.
    • Dogs, cats and rodents serve as reservoirs, and the vector is the sandfly.

    Histologic Features:

    • Cutaneous lesions show infiltrates of histiocytes containing groups of the organism within the dermis.
    • The intracellular leishmanial amastigotes range from 1 to 3 μm in diameter and contain a round nucleus and adjacent transverse bar-like kinetoplast (sometimes difficult to visualize).
    • The kinetoplast is a useful feature in distinguishing leishmaniasis from histoplasmosis, which also shows multiple small organisms within hitiocytes.
    • Giemsa stains the nucleus purple and the kinetoplast bright red or red-purple.
    • Ulceration with peripheral pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia may occur.
    • If organisms cannot be identified histologically, the diagnosis can be made using culture or PCR, with PCR having greater sensitivity.

    External Links:

    Cases associated with this book:

  • Leishmaniasis
    Author: Artur Zembowicz M.D. Ph.D.

    Conference: DermatopathologyConsultations.com Teaching Collection