A bullous eruption of attached gingiva mediated by autoantibodies to laminin 5 and BP antigens in basement membrane is known as:
Which of the following features are not characteristic of patients with HPV-related squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx?
The most common subtype of HPV involved in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas is:
The circumscribed salivary gland tumor that is composed of a mixture of neoplastic ductal epithelium, myoepithelial cells and the derived connective tissue products of the myoepithelial cells is known as:
Human papilloma virus (HPV) has been found in which of the following oral lesions?
All the following are features of Sjogren's syndrome except:
Which of the following is not true with regards to mucoepidermoid carcinoma?
Verrucous carcinoma is part of the clinical spectrum of which condition?
Basomelanocytic tumor is a term applied for biphasic malignant neoplasms composed of basal cell carcinoma intimately associated with malignant melanocytic component. An example of basomelanocytic tumor is shown in images below:
Which of the following statements regarding basomelanocytic tumors is not correct?
Nuclear transcription factors emerged as the best lineage-specific markers and using a panel of immunohistochemical stains for nuclear factors is one of the best strategies in the work-up of metastatic carcinoma of unknown primary.
Nuclear transcription factors are proteins with unique DNA binding and transcriptional/regulation domains which bind to short-sequence DNA motifs. They serve as molecular ‘switches’ that regulate expression of a series of cell-specific proteins.
Nuclear transcription factors have advantages as immunohistochemical markers. They are positive on entire tumor cell population. Their expression is not necessarily related to state of tumor differentiation. They are exquisitely sensitive and specific. Due to nuclear expression the stains are easy to interpret.
Answers below list useful immunohistochemical markers with corresponding primary cancers they are expected to be expressed in. Please identify one answer which lists cytoplasmic/membraneous rather than nuclear markers.
Which of the following statements regarding lymphoma in HIV/AIDS is not true?
Advent of HAART (incl. cART) has resulted in improved morbidity, mortality & life expectancy of patients with AIDS.
As a result, there is declining incidence of AIDS-defining illnesses, incl. AIDS-defining malignancies. However, deaths due to non-AIDS defining cancers are on the rise (3x ↑).
Which of the following malignancies is not an AIDS defining neoplasm?
Acute exanthem of HIV infection is an early manifestation of HIV infection. Patients turn seropositive shortly thereafter. Clinically, it often presents as a morbilliform exanthem.
Skin biopsy in acute exanthem of HIV infection typically shows which pattern of tissue reaction?
Rare variants of melanoma can show areas of divergent differentiation such as schwannian, smooth muscle, skeletal muscle, cartilage, osteoid, neuroendocrine, etc.
The term metaplastic melanoma is aplied to melanomas showing cartilaginous (chondroid melanoma) or osteoid (osteogenic melanoma).
Which of the following is the most common site of occurence of osteogenic melanoma?
Interaction of PD1-Ligand expressed on melanoma cells with PD1 receptor on activated tumor-specifice T cell provides inhibitory signal which supresses T cell activation. This is a critical mechanism of resistance of tumors towards immune response. Blocking of this interaction by anti-PD1 drugs is called immune checkpoint blockade. It is a very promising mechanims targeted by drugs which has shown to result in long-term survival in some patients with advanced melanoma and other malignancies.
Which of the following statement about immune check point blockage and PD1 targeting by anti-cancer drugs is not true?
The term Next-Gen Sequencing refers to massive parallel sequencing of DNA or cDNA This technology allows to sequence each gene many times (up to 500 times) to increase sensitivity. It can detect base pair mutations, insertions, deletions, copy number changes, translocations in one sequencing reaction. Which of the following statements regarding Next Gene Sequencing is true:
The image below show biopsy of parakeratinizing odonotogenic keratocyst.
Which of the following statements regarding this entity is not true?
The number of melanoma cases worldwide is believed to be increasing faster than any cancer other than non-melanoma skin cancer, with estimates suggesting a doubling of melanoma incidence every 10-20 years. It has been estimated that in 2013 there were 76,690 new cases of cutaneous melanoma in the USA, and that 9,480 people in the USA died from cutaneous melanoma.
These findings have led to statements that cutaneous melanoma has become epidemic in Caucasian populations in many parts of the world. Melanoma is often cured if excised at an early/thin stage, but until very recently advanced/metastatic melanoma has had a very high fatality rate, and been considered for the most part to be incurable. Therefore, in the past 30 years great effort has been put into lowering the death rate from cutaneous melanoma by identifying lesions at an early, curable stage, and screening individuals for early lesions.
Which statement about cutaneous melanoma in the USA has been true for the past 30-40 years? (choose one)
Which is the best immunohistochemical marker for demonstrating hepatocellular differentiation?
A biopsy is submitted from the cheek of an 82 year old man. It contains a spindle cell proliferation that you are concerned could be desmoplastic melanoma. Which of the following are most likely to help you identify desmoplastic melanoma?